Community Assessment and Diagnosis

Community Assessment and Diagnosis

Introduction

This paper will conduct a community assessment for the city of Montreal, which is considered the most populous municipality. The assessment will give specific focus to the community core education and the health, and social services. This review will look at some of the amassed community data to provide an interpretation of the community information and offer logical health diagnosis on how to anticipate health conditions for the seniors and the aging (who are above 60 and above years) who require acute care. The paper will also look at the capacity of the city assist these patients by leveraging on the existing elements.

Community Description and Data Interpretation

As a city considered to be in the northern part of America, Montreal is composed of many cultural dynamics which are largely influenced by the changing cultural elements just as many of the large metropolis around the globe that have to accommodate different individuals and the changing societal patterns. It is especially largely influenced by the cultural dynamics of both English and French traditions. Despite its age and with researchers such as Laura (2014) noting that Montreal could have been in existence as early as 4000 years ago, it was officially made a city in 1832 when the Lachine Canal was allowed to permit the passage of ships in Lachine Rapids.

Community Core

The core refers to the values that are held by people, the history that guides their existence, their belief systems, and characteristics and attributes that makeup such a community. According to Canadian statistics Www12.statcan.gc.ca (2017), as at the 2011 census, Montreal had about 1,649,519 inhabitants. This figure indicated a population growth rate of +5.2% from the figures obtained in 2006. To date, the growth rate for the population is estimated to stand at about 3.1 million inhabitants. The number of children is thought to constitute 17.1% while the adults above the ages of 65 years take up about 13.6% (United Nations, 2017). In reference to ethnicities, the minority groups take up about 26% of the total population with the blacks being the largest minorities who stand at 9.1%. This number is considered a contributing factor to Montreal being regarded the second highest for accommodating the black population in Canada. Europeans make up to 67.7%, which is a reduction in comparison to the 2006 figures, which stood at 73.5%. Projection into the future estimate that about 5.2 million individuals will be living in Montreal in 2030 with minorities making up for about 1.7 million individuals if the growth rate that has been witnessed over the years is projected in the future. At the same time, the aging population is also expected to grow especially by relying on the statistics for the younger population (Simon, Piché & Gagnon, 2015). According to Ardene, Elizabeth, & Judith (2016), as an element of the economy, Montreal has witnessed this growth largely owing to its acceptance technology, differentiated culture dynamics, finance, and e-commerce. All of these elements have drawn a large population of people into the larger Montreal and to the city. However, despite its growth, statistics indicate the level of unemployment has edged up to about 6.4 %, which is considerably higher in comparison to the Canadian economy statistics whose rate stand at 5.9%. This difference can be explained by the quest by most of the people as has been portrayed by the statistics to look for more opportunities in the city. The high unemployment would be both a positive and a negative. On the negative front, it would mean that more people are looking for opportunities thus giving the economy some strain. On the negative, this would mean that there are some forms of competitiveness, which would only require only those, that are best performing and well-endowed to work gain the opportunities to work (Roman, 2015). In reference to the health promotion, the high growth rate is especially viewed with mixed reactions especially considering the number of practitioners that are expected to handle such demands for a high population. Health is considered a necessity today with the law recognizing it as a mandatory requirement. The high population presents an opportunity where more companies might venture into the health industry to facilitate the provision of services and accommodate the new needs. This positive element closely turns to negative element in the short run since it does not accommodate the changing needs. The high population also as a down side consumes the set budget much quickly and largely leads to an inflation of prices on major essential goods that directly affect the health. This is why today; the aging population has raised concerns on the failure of the government to accommodate their interest. Budgetary allocations have shown there is little being done to accommodate them (Www12.statcan.gc.ca. 2016).

Education

In the education sector, Montreal has about four main universities and about seven institutions that offer degree services. All of these are within an 8-kilometer radius. Statistics also indicate that Montreal has the highest level of concentration of students who have finished secondary in comparison to all the other North American cities. Further analysis shows that for every 100 residents, four of them are students. Education in Montreal ranks quite as a high in comparison to the world standards. In an analysis conducted by Laura (2014),  arts and humanities are rated to stand at about 26th in the world at McGill University, engineering and technology stand at 59 in McGill University and 151 in Universite de Montreal, life sciences, and medicine stand at 25 in McGill University and 80 in university de Montreal. The natural sciences and the social sciences rank also stand at 44 and 174 in McGill and University de Montreal and 43rd and 131 for both the universities and courses respectively. A study by Gov.mb.ca (2017) further reveals that universities in Montreal highly in reference to the global standings. Alongside to this is the fact that the education also provides different skill set to students allowing them to exist harmoniously with other individuals in the society. As Laura (2014) further explains, the courses that they are exposed to are structured in such a way that they interact well blending to the needs of the society. This why the employer activity rank standings are at about 16th as the research by Laura (2014) shows. This ranking indicates that most of the students that pursue courses in Montreal have a higher chance of getting opportunities to work in this town in comparison to other major towns such as Toronto whose ranking stands at 26. At the same time, the learning environment is multi-cultural mainly owing to the existence of many festivities and functions all, which are considered essential elements towards cementing an excellent learning environment (Gov.mb.ca. 2017). The affordability of the courses also factors to this need. The larger component of accessing the knowledge and education lies in the affordability in the institutions. The average cost of living in Montreal ranks at about ($11,300). This figure includes the cost of housing costs which according to Laura (2014), Montreal has the most affordable housing in comparison to all the major North American cities. In Canada, Montreal housing costs are considered lowest in comparison to all the major cities. The tuition fees for most of the universities are rated to stand at $12,000, which is a low figure in comparison to the average Canadian tuition fee figure of about $20,500. Other elements that characterize the Montreal’s educations systems are the universality principles, which ensure there is free basic medical care for every resident in the province. The public education charges are also free from the Kindergarten to college while the official languages are English and French. Other educational benefits are the low daycare fees, which have been rated to stand low. In reference to the health promotion assessment, one of the positive aspects of the Montreal education environment lies in its capacity provides a perfect platform to address all the health requirements. For example, the existence of the student provides a platform where in case of a disaster; there will be more labor and individuals to facilitate delivery of health services. However, the existence of such a large population is likely to affect the health element especially considering most of the young people who are likely to make up the large part of the population may not necessarily be aware of the health precautions that they may be required to take. Moreover, on the positive light, the existence of university that offers courses in the healthcare provides a perfect platform for learners to put initial practice their learned skills and advance their experience. At the same time, the province has accommodated for the free health requirement, which emphasizes on the necessity of delivering free medical services to the entire resident. This makes it possible to access the basic health needs as at when they require (Haddow, 2015).

Health and Social Services

In Canada, provision of health care services lies under the jurisdiction of the province. The federal government usually finances all the contractual agreements with the provinces although; the delivery of health services majorly lies in the administration of health insurance. Among all the other provinces, Montreal which a city of Quebec has total per capita stands at $4426. This figure represents the low statistics, which characterize the health care, cost of expenditure. In comparison to the US, health care per capital in Montreal cost stands at $8715. This represents a smaller figure, which is almost half of the cost (Laura, 2014).

Various services are provided by the overall Quebec’s insurance plan to accommodate both the permanent and the temporary residents. Among them are the hospital-based medical needs, which accommodate interests such as the mental health care, outpatients department with services such as ER. There are also medical services that are provided by physicians who are outside hospital, radiology services, dental care especially for children under the age of 10 years and optometry services for individuals within the ages of below 18 and above 65 (Haddow, 2015). Over the years, Montreal has had to face the challenge of the shortage of doctors, which is occasioned by the low level of income earning. Statistics indicate that while the average income is earning of a physician’s stands at $200,000, in Quebec the earning could stand at $165,000. The earning disparities result from the differences in the management where each province has its own healthcare management structure. As a mandatory requirement that was presented by Lester Pearson’s liberal government, today the healthcare system in Canada hopes to provide near-universal health coverage, which means anyone accessing the medical facilities irrespective of their capacity to finance their health can access the medical services (Damien, 2015). On the positive light, Montreal has for the past few years been experiencing growth in the medical sector with the government facilitating the introduction of more healthcare facilities to curb the health care needs. The introduction of new facilities is in a bid to keep to the market pressures at low and to assure only the best health care is provided to the patients. The Canadian health care has been considered among the most expensive and with the introduction of such new facilities in areas such as Montreal, which are more populated, the government hopes to address the market needs as (Canadian Labour Congress, 2017). On the contrary, just like many of the western nations, the skyrocketing prices of the healthcare industry curtail development and access to the basic requirement. Based on the population data, the larger portion of Quebec, which is the Montreal’s managing province, is characterized by both an aging population and the growing population who are not working. The growth rate of this number demands the over-consumption of the health care services, increasing costs for the medication and the number of treatments. This need thus calls for upgrading of facilities, which in the short run has created a tussle between the provincial and federal government allocations. In the 1980’s, most of the healthcare facilities were amalgamated and other closed or assigned to different functions. This meant a reduction in the budgetary allocations, which affected the quality of the services that were being delivered to the patients (Simon, Piché & Gagnon, 2015).

Community Nursing Diagnosis

Today, an increasing population whose current standing is at about 4 million inhabitants characterizes Montreal. This data relates to the whole city and the larger Quebec province. The increasing population demands more health requirements especially considering Montreal main revenue generating sphere lies in the tourism sector. One element that calls for the rise of tourism is the existence of a stable and a well-functioning health care system. There is thus the need for the development of proper systems, and the accommodation of the private sector begins working on ways to deliver health care. The high population growth requirement demands especially with the ageing population calls for the delivery of better services, and with the adoption of the private sector, it is likely that the health sector in public would have to improve its quality delivery to match to the external pressure (Geloso, 2017). The second dynamic that signifies Montreal’s characteristic is the increasing non-productive population. The increase in the aging the older population who are not working becomes a strain on the budget since their participation in the economy. The government should thus begin investing mainly into the caregivers homes where they would effectively facilitate and deliver medical services with ease to the aging population. At the same time, the government should begin introducing the younger population to essential health habits with a proposal on some of the food requirements that are considered to add nutritional value. The younger would facilitate the delivery of healthcare services to the aging making it affordable and cheaper to deliver such services. The Canadian government can also make use of the existing university learners and college students to develop a curriculum that is structured to assimilate them into their systems. The curriculum can be structured in such a way that the students would directly interact with the patients not only for learning purposes but also as a part of delivering the service needs. At the same time, the education needs to be structured in such a way that it accommodates for the changes in the society. Currently, the education structure has been integrated as a general system, hence creating a need re-customized and reevaluation the application of the various learned concepts (Simon, Piché & Gagnon, 2015). Part of this would be to add a curriculum that looks into the interest of the aging population. The government should also relook the compensation program that has been adopted. Quebec rates poorly in terms of the compensation, which infers to the low numbers of physicians that currently exist. More needs to be done to ensure the physician to the population ration. Currently, the number stands at about 19,808 practicing doctors indicating a market need that is existing. Lastly, the education should accommodate the different language speakers, while English and French are the main languages today, there is need to assimilate more speaking other races since as the statistics indicate, by 2030 they will be more than the current population. Assimilating more communities would lead to opening up of the language barrier hence facilitating delivery of health care. At the same time, such assimilation will be essential in introducing basic health information in the language that is best understood by all people including the tourists. With the introduction of new languages to accommodate the aging population for other communities, it will be easy to deliver care giving services to all the patients regardless of where thy come from.

Conclusion

Montreal’s health needs arise from the increasing population, aging population and the fact that different individuals are living in the city at any given time. The capacity to accommodate all these people at once is what the health care system needs to target by addressing the specific interests that are unique to them. The federal government should towards ensuring a unified system that allows everyone to access health care at once. For this to happen there is need to rival on the existing infrastructure, resources, and individuals to aid in the delivery of healthcare.

 

References

Ardene, R. V., Elizabeth T. A., & Judith. M. M., (2016). Canadian Community as Partner: Theory & Multidisciplinary Practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Canadian Labour Congress. (2017). 6 ways we are working to improve health care, Canadianlabour.ca. Retrieved 30 December 2017, from http://canadianlabour.ca/issues-research/6-ways-we-are-working-improve-health-care

Damien Contandriopoulos (2015). Trudeau Must Intervene To Save Quebec’s Public Health-Care System. HuffPost Canada. Retrieved 27 December 2017, from http://www.huffingtonpost.ca/damien-contandriopoulos/quebecs-health-care-system_b_8512878.html

Geloso, V. (2017). Rethinking Canadian economic growth and development since 1900. The Quebec case. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Gov.mb.ca. (2017). Community Health assessment GUIDELINE  Retrieved from https://www.gov.mb.ca/health/rha/docs/chag.pdf

Haddow, R. (2015). Comparing Quebec and Ontario: political economy and public policy at the turn of the millennium. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Internations.org. (2017). Healthcare and Insurance in Montreal. Retrieved from https://www.internations.org/montreal-expats/guide/living-in-montreal-15727/healthcare-and-insurance-in-montreal-2

Laura Tucker. (2014). QS Best Student Cities 2015: Toronto Vs Montréal Top Universities. Retrieved from https://www.topuniversities.com/blog/qs-best-student-cities-2015-toronto-vs-montreal

Lynnette, L. Stamler, L. Y., Aliyah, D. (2015). Community health Nursing; A Canadian Perspective. Pearson Education: Canada.

Roman, R. (2015). Continental Crucible: Big Business, Workers, and Unions in the Transformation of North America. Place of publication not identified: PM Press.

Simon, P., Piché, V. & Gagnon. (2015). Social statistics and ethnic diversity: cross-national perspectives in classifications and identity politics. Cham: Springer.

United Nations. (2017). World Urbanization Prospects – Population Division – Esa.un.org. Retrieved from https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/

Www12.statcan.gc.ca. (2016). Immigration and Ethno cultural Diversity in Canada. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-010-x/99-010-x2011001-eng.cfm

Www12.statcan.gc.ca. (2017). Census Profile, 2016 Census – Montréal, Ville [Census subdivision], Quebec and Montréal, Territoire équivalent [Census division], Quebec. from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/prof/details/page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CSD&Code1=2466023&Geo2=CD&Code2=2466&Data=Count&SearchText=montreal&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&TABID=1

 

 

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