Criminological Theory and Statistics

a paper discussing the relationship between criminal justice theory and statistical data and how statistical data can be used to support or refute criminological theory. I need to discuss the pros and the cons of statistical data in criminology.


            In this paper, there will be a discussion of the relationship between criminological theory and statistical data. There will also be a focus on how statistical data can be used to support or refute criminological theory. In addition, the pros and cons of statistical data will be evaluated.


Criminology has remained a fragment of the criminal justice system for countless years. Criminology and criminological theories has had several criticizers during its antiquity; however, it still has endurance in the criminal justice system. In today’s world of criminology, statistical data plays an essential part in supporting criminology or rebutting a specific criminological theory.

Criminological Theory

Criminology theories provide explanations as to why some individuals commit crime(s). To go further in depth, criminology center-focuses on why persons commit crimes and why they behave under such circumstances. By understanding why a person commits a crime, allows one to create customs of controlling crime or acclimatizing the offender.

Criminology Theories

There are five criminology theories, in which helps to explain why individuals engage in criminal activity. Those five criminology theories include: “Choice Theory, Classical Theory, Conflict Theory, Critical Theory, and Labeling Theory” (Tania, April 22, 2014).  To begin with, the choice theory is the belief that individuals choose to engage in criminal activity. “There individuals look at the opportunities before them, weigh the benefit versus the punishment, and deciding whether to proceed or not”. Secondly, the classical theory correlates to the choice theory; however, it focuses on the belief that individual’s think before they act. In the criminal’s mind, they feel as if the crime they have committed has given them some sort of gain. Nevertheless, these individuals are knowledgeable of the penalties following their actions. Thirdly, the conflict theory believes that an individual’s behaviors are based from a societal standpoint. For an example, if a person was upbrought in a high crime area involving the selling and using of drugs, then he or she will more likely use or sell drugs. Fourthly, “Critical theory upholds the belief that a small few, the elite of the society, decide laws and the definition of crime; those who commit crimes disagree with the laws that were created to keep control of them” (Tania, April 22, 2014). Lastly, the labeling theory believes that a person will develop into the person he or she is perceived as or what other individuals want he or she to be.

Statistical Data and Criminology Theories

Statistical data is when surveyors assemble, scrutinize, construe, demonstrate and establish data. When it comes to criminology theories, there is correlation between the two. Criminology explains to us why one engages in crime and why they exhibit criminal behaviors.

On the other hand, statistical data keeps track of what age group, the area or geographic region in which the crime has occurred, the day, month, year the crime was committed. When combining the two, researchers provide information that law enforcement can use to deter criminal activity, as well as becoming more knowledgeable of criminals’ actions and behaviors.

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Pros and Cons of Statistical Data Supporting Criminology Theories

There are a great deal of pros when it comes to statistical data and criminology theories. These pros include: The federal and state government working as a team to develop effective law and policies, utilizing data to create strategic plans to deter crime, placing a target on high crime areas, citizens and law enforcement can monitor statistical numbers. The pros listed share common goals, which are deterring criminal behaviors, protecting and serving communities effectively and efficiently, and monitoring numbers to ensure crime rates are being condensed. In contrast, there are a great deal of cons as well of statistical data and criminology theories. Cons include: Not all information being reported, which can result in inaccurate information, law enforcement not having enough manpower to control crime, law enforcement not having enough funds, and statistical data increasing because more arrests are being made.


            In this paper, there was a discussion of the relationship between criminological theory and statistical data, while focusing on how statistical data can be used to support or refute criminological theory. In addition, the pros and cons of statistical data supporting or refuting criminological theory was also assessed. With the combination of statistical data and criminological theory, law enforcement can develop strategic plans on how to eliminate and deter criminal activity. After all, law enforcement’s primary focus is to protect, serve, and deter so that communities are safe.

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