LABOR MARKET REPORT

LABOR MARKET REPORT

Page 1 of 15 LABOR MARKET REPORT OBJECTIVES o Practice working with and analyzing real-world data o Practice displaying and communicating data in graphs and tables o Practice interpreting and thinking about data within the context of labor economic theory o Learn problem solving skills and light programming skills in a technology-rich environment INSTRUCTIONS Complete the following ten questions. Turn in a paper copy of your work at the beginning of class on the due date (see the syllabus). Use a solitary staple in the upper right corner to attach multiple pieces of paper together. Please include your name on your report. You may work in pairs if you so choose1 . If you do, I highly suggest working together, rather than splitting up the workload and working separately. Please type and double-space your commentary. Any word count guides are suggestions. You may go under or over at times. However, if you find that you consistently have little to write, you should think more deeply about the data. All graphs and tables should be clear, legible, and straightforward. Think about the design of your graphs and tables before you create them. Copy-pasting from the IMPUS Online Analysis printout is poor form. ACCESSING THE DATA You will be using data from the U.S. Current Population Survey (CPS) provided through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) from the Minnesota Population Center. You may access the data at no cost at the following website: https://cps.ipums.org/cps/index.shtml You need to create an account to access the data. Please remember your login credentials, as I have no access to them. 1 “Pairs” implies two people. Working in groups of more than two or collaborating with other groups constitutes academic misconduct. Page 2 of 15 After you have created an account, you may log in and use the online data analysis tool at the following link: https://cps.ipums.org/cps/sda.shtml DOCUMENTATION Please read all documentation before beginning. Video tutorial: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E4_YY2xr3Lc IPUMS FAQ: https://cps.ipums.org/cps-action/faq Online Data Analysis Instructions: https://cps.ipums.org/cps/resources/sda/sdainstructions.pdf Online Help for Data Analysis: https://sda.cps.ipums.org/helpfiles/helpan.htm Recoding Instructions (very important): https://sda.cps.ipums.org/helpfiles/helpan.htm#irecode CPS Variables Codebook (very important) https://sda.cps.ipums.org/all_march_samples/Doc/nes.htm BUSINESS CYCLES It might be helpful to refer to business cycles in your commentaries. The NBER list of business cycle dates is located here: http://www.nber.org/cycles.html EARNINGS The variable EARNWEEK measures earnings per week in nominal dollars. It takes a value of 9998 or 9999 if the person is missing earnings data or not in the universe (i.e. not in the Earner Study). If you do not filter out these values, your estimates will have a comically large upward bias. Always think about whether your estimates make sense before believing them. Note: EARNWEEK is for the main job the respondent held in the previous year. INFLATION If you are comparing dollar amounts over time, you must adjust for inflation using the CPI-Urban, 1999 base year. See the following for details and the index: https://cps.ipums.org/cps/cpi99.shtml Page 3 of 15 WEIGHTING For most of the analyses, the appropriate weight to use is WTSUPP. However, for variables from the Earner Study (EARNWEEK, HOURWAGE, PAIDHOUR, UNION, UHRSWORK, WKSWORKORH, ELIGORG, and OTPAY), you must use EARNWT as your weight. FRUSTRATION Learning a new system may be challenging and frustrating. However, working through challenges fosters meaningful human capital development. Employers value employees who can learn and develop new skills themselves in a technologically-rich environment. GROUP DEFINITIONS When the questions below refer to groups, they use the following definitions. Because many of these definitions are different than the categories used in variables in the IPUMS database, you will need to do some recoding in your analyses. Note: The CPS has changed over the years; thus, not all variables are available for the entire time-span. Age Groups, 1962-2016 o 18 – 24 year olds o 25 – 34 year olds o 35 – 44 year olds o 45 – 54 year olds o 55 – 64 year olds Educational Attainment Groups, 1962-2016 o Less than high school (include no schooling, grades 1 – 11, 12th grade no diploma) o High school only (include high school diploma, high school equivalent, or high school diploma unclear) o Some college (include 1 – 3 years of college no degree, Associate’s degree, occupational/vocational program) o College (include 4 years of college or Bachelor’s degree) o Postgraduate (include 5-6 years of college, Master’s degree, Professional degree, Doctoral degree) Employment Status, 1962-2016 o Employed (include at work, has a job not at work last week) o Unemployed (include unemployed of any type) o Not In Labor Force (include not in the labor force of any type) Page 4 of 15 Hispanic Ethnicity Groups, 1971-2016 o Not Hispanic o Hispanic (include all Hispanic national origin groups) Note: Hispanic is an ethnicity, not a race. Hence, a person of any race may identify as Hispanic. The CPS redefined Hispanic coding in 1976. Labor Force Status, 1962-2016 o Labor Force Participant (include at work, has a job not at work last week, or unemployed of any type) o Not in Labor Force (include not in the labor force of any type) Racial Groups, 1962-2016 o White o Black o Asian (include Asian or Pacific Islander) o Other Races (include American Indian, biracial, multiracial groups) Note: The CPS only began to consider the Asian group separately from “other races” in the mid-1980s. Because of the sample size of the CPS, decomposing the “other races” category into larger groups would result in very noisy estimates. Marital Status Groups, 1962-2016 o Married (include spouse present and absent) o Divorced/Separated (include separated, divorced) o Single (include widowed, never married, single) Nativity Groups, 1994-2016 o Native-born, native parents o Native-born, immigrant parent (include native born with at least one foreign-born parent) o Foreign-born Region, 1962-2016 o Northeast Region (include New England and Middle Atlantic divisions) o Midwest Region (include (East North Central and West North Central divisions) o South Region (include South Atlantic, East South Central, and West South Central divisions) o West Region (include Mountain and Pacific division) Sex, 1962-2016 o Male o Female Page 5 of 15 Union Status, 1990-2016 o Non-union (include not a member, not covered by a union contract) o Union Coverage (include member of a labor union, non-member but covered by a union contract) Veteran Status, 1964-2016 o Veteran o Non-veteran MAKING GRAPHS AND TABLES IN EXCEL There are plenty of online tutorials for making graphs and tables of all sorts in Excel. Please refer to the Internet search engine of your choice for information. HAVE FUN! Page 6 of 15 QUESTION 1 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WORKING-AGE POPULATION Analysis: Frequencies Restrictions: Age 18-64 How have the characteristics of the American working-age population changed since the 1960s? Make the following graphs to illustrate. Summarize your findings and comment on any noteworthy trends using labor economic theory with a few paragraphs totaling 300 words. GRAPH 1A: AGE, 1962-2016 Graph the relative frequencies of age groups over time GRAPH 1B: RACE, 1962-2016 Graph the relative frequencies of racial groups over time GRAPH 1C: EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, 1962-2016 Graph the relative frequencies of educational attainment groups over time GRAPH 1D: NATIONAL ORIGIN, 1994-2016 Graph the relative frequencies of national origin groups over time GRAPH 1E: HISPANIC ETHNICITY, 1971-2016 Graph the relative frequency of Hispanic ethnicity over time GRAPH 1F: MARITAL STATUS, 1962-2016 Graph the relative frequencies of marital status groups over time GRAPH 1G: REGION, 1962-2016 Graph the relative frequencies of regional groups over time GRAPH 1H: VETERAN STATUS, 1964-2016 Graph the relative frequency of veteran status over time Page 7 of 15 QUESTION 2 CIVILIAN LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION RATES OVER TIME Analysis: Frequencies Restrictions: Age 18-64, Civilian (not in the Armed Services) How has labor force participation changed for various groups changed since the 1960s? Make the following graphs to illustrate. Summarize your findings and comment on any noteworthy trends using labor economic theory with a few paragraphs totaling 300 words. GRAPH 2A: MALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION CONDITIONAL ON AGE, MALES, 1962-2016 Graph the labor force participation rates for males conditional on age group over time GRAPH 2B: FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION CONDITIONAL ON AGE, 1962-2016 Graph the labor force participation rates for females conditional on age group over time GRAPH 2C: MALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION CONDITIONAL ON RACE, 1962-2016 Graph the labor force participation rates for males conditional on racial group over time GRAPH 2D: FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION CONDITIONAL ON RACE, 1962-2016 Graph the labor force participation rates for females conditional on racial group over time GRAPH 2E: MALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION CONDITIONAL ON MARITAL STATUS, 1962-2016 Graph the labor force participation rates for males conditional on marital status group over time GRAPH 2F: FEMALE LABOR FORCE PARTICIPATION CONDITIONAL ON MARITAL STATUS, 1962-2016 Graph the labor force participation rates for females conditional on marital status group over time Page 8 of 15 QUESTION 3 CIVILIAN UNEMPLOYMENT RATES OVER TIME Analysis: Frequencies Restrictions: Age 18-64, Labor Force Participant2 , Civilian (not in the Armed Services) How has the unemployment rate changed for various groups since the 1960s? Make the following graphs to illustrate. Summarize your findings and comment on any noteworthy trends using labor economic theory with a few paragraphs totaling 300 words. GRAPH 3A: MALE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE CONDITIONAL ON AGE, 1962-2016 Graph the unemployment rate for males conditional on age group over time GRAPH 3B: FEMALE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE CONDITIONAL ON AGE, 1962-2016 Graph the unemployment rate for females conditional on age group over time GRAPH 3C: MALE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE CONDITIONAL ON RACE, 1962-2016 Graph the unemployment rate for males conditional on racial group over time GRAPH 3D: FEMALE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE CONDITIONAL ON RACE, 1962- 2016 Graph the unemployment rate for females conditional on racial group over time 2 Reminder: the unemployment rate has the labor force in the denominator. Page 9 of 15 QUESTION 4 REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS OVER TIME, FULL-TIME WORKERS Analysis: Means Restrictions: Age 18-64, Full-time worker (35+ usual hours per week) How have real weekly earnings for various groups changed since 1990? Make the following graphs to illustrate. Summarize your findings and comment on any noteworthy trends using labor economic theory with a few paragraphs totaling 300 words. GRAPH 4A: REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS CONDITIONAL ON EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, 1990-2016 Graph real weekly earnings for working-age, full-time workers conditional on educational attainment GRAPH 4B: REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS CONDITIONAL ON RACE, 1990-2016 Graph real weekly earnings for working-age, full-time workers conditional on racial group GRAPH 4C: REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS CONDITIONAL ON SEX, 1990-2016 Graph real weekly earnings for working-age, full-time workers conditional on sex GRAPH 4D: REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS CONDITIONAL ON UNION COVERAGE, 1990-2016 Graph real weekly earnings for working-age, full-time workers conditional on union coverage GRAPH 4E: REAL WEEKLY EARNINGS CONDITIONAL ON REGION, 1990-2016 Graph real weekly earnings for working-age, full-time workers conditional on region Page 10 of 15 QUESTION 5 CHARACTERISTICS, EMPLOYED WORKERS, 1965-2016 Analysis: Frequencies Restrictions: Age 18-64, employed, certain years How have the characteristics of employed workers changed from 1965, 1975, 1985, 1995, to 2016? Make the following table to illustrate. Summarize your findings and comment on any noteworthy trends using labor economic theory with a few paragraphs totaling 300 words. TABLE 5A: CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS, 1964-2016 Columns: years 1965, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2016 Rows: o Age group relative frequencies o Educational attainment group relative frequencies o Hispanic ethnicity relative frequency (1995, 2016 only) o Racial group relative frequencies o Marital status relative frequencies o Nativity group relative frequencies (1995, 2016 only) o Region group relative frequencies o Sex relative frequencies o Union status relative frequencies (1995, 2016 only) o Veteran status relative frequencies Page 11 of 15 QUESTION 6 CHARACTERISTICS, 2016 Analysis: Frequencies Restrictions: Age 18-64 How did the characteristics of residents differ in characteristics between various race and sex groups in 2016? How did the characteristics of employed workers differ in characteristics between various race and sex groups in 2016? Make the following tables to illustrate. Summarize your findings and comment on any noteworthy trends using labor economic theory with a few paragraphs totaling 300 words. TABLE 6A: CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDENTS, 2016 Columns: White males, White females, Black males, Black females, Asian males, Asian females, Other males, Other females Rows: o Age group relative frequencies o Educational attainment group relative frequencies o Hispanic ethnicity relative frequency o Labor force participation relative frequency o Marital status relative frequencies o Nativity group relative frequencies o Region relative frequencies o Veteran status relative frequencies TABLE 6B: CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS, 2016 Additional restriction: Employed workers only Columns: White males, White females, Black males, Black females, Asian males, Asian females, Other males, Other females Rows: o Age group relative frequencies o Educational attainment group relative frequencies o Hispanic ethnicity relative frequency o Marital status relative frequencies o Nativity group relative frequencies o Region relative frequencies o Union status relative frequencies o Veteran status relative frequencies Page 12 of 15 QUESTION 7 NOMINAL WEEKLY EARNINGS, EMPLOYED WORKERS, 2016 Analysis: Means Restrictions: Age 18-64, employed How did mean nominal weekly earnings of employed workers differ between various race and sex groups conditional on various characteristics in 2016? Make the following tables to illustrate. Summarize your findings and comment on any noteworthy trends using labor economic theory with a few paragraphs totaling 600 words. TABLE 7A: WEEKLY EARNINGS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS BY RACE/SEX, 2016 Columns: Males, Females Rows (cells are mean nominal weekly earnings for each column group conditional on characteristics): o Racial group TABLE 7B: WEEKLY EARNINGS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS BY SEX AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, 2016 Columns: Males, Females Rows (cells are mean nominal weekly earnings for each column group conditional on characteristics): o Educational attainment group TABLE 7C: WEEKLY EARNINGS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS BY RACE AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, 2016 Columns: Whites, Blacks, Asians, Other Rows (cells are mean nominal weekly earnings for each column group conditional on characteristics): o Educational attainment group TABLE 7D: WEEKLY EARNIGNS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS BY SEX AND VETERAN STATUS, 2016 Columns: Males, Females Rows (cells are mean nominal weekly earnings for each column group conditional on characteristics): o Veteran status group TABLE 7E: WEEKLY EARNIGNS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS BY EDUCAITONAL ATTAINMENT AND UNION STATUS, 2016 Columns: Union, Nonunion Rows (cells are mean nominal weekly earnings for each column group conditional on characteristics): o Educational attainment group Page 13 of 15 QUESTION 8 CHARACTERISTICS AND EARNINGS BY NATIVITY, 2016 Analysis: Frequencies, Means Restrictions: Age 18-64 How did the characteristics and earnings of residents differ in between various nativity groups in 2016? Make the following tables to illustrate. Summarize your findings and comment on any noteworthy trends using labor economic theory with a few paragraphs totaling 300 words. TABLE 8A: CHARACTERISTICS OF RESIDENTS BY NATIVITY, 2016 Columns: Native-born, Native-parents; Native-born, immigrant parent; Foreign-born Rows: o Age group relative frequencies o Educational attainment group relative frequencies o Hispanic ethnicity relative frequency o Labor force participation relative frequency o Marital status relative frequencies o Nativity group relative frequencies o Racial group relative frequencies o Region relative frequencies o Veteran status relative frequencies TABLE 8B: CHARACTERISTICS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS BY NATIVITY, 2016 Additional restriction: Employed workers only Columns: Native-born, Native-parents; Native-born, immigrant parent; Foreign-born Rows: o Age group relative frequencies o Educational attainment group relative frequencies o Hispanic ethnicity relative frequency o Marital status relative frequencies o Racial group relative frequencies o Region relative frequencies o Union status relative frequencies o Veteran status relative frequencies TABLE 8C: MEAN NOMINAL WEEKLY EARNINGS OF EMPLOYED WORKERS BY NATIVITY AND EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, 2016 Additional restriction: Employed workers only Columns: Native-born, Native-parents; Native-born, immigrant parent; Foreign-born Rows (cells are mean nominal weekly earnings for each column group conditional on characteristics): o Educational attainment group Page 14 of 15 QUESTION 9 CHARACTERISTICS BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS, 2016 Analysis: Frequencies Restrictions: Age 18-64 How did the characteristics of employed workers differ from those of unemployed workers and labor market non-participants in 2016? Make the following table to illustrate. Summarize your findings and comment on any noteworthy trends using labor economic theory with a few paragraphs totaling 300 words. TABLE 9A: CHARACTERISTICS BY EMPLOYMENT STATUS, 2016 Columns: Employed, Unemployed, Not in the Labor Force Rows: o Age group relative frequencies o Educational attainment group relative frequencies o Hispanic ethnicity relative frequency o Marital status relative frequencies o Nativity group relative frequencies o Racial group relative frequencies o Region relative frequencies o Veteran status relative frequencies Page 15 of 15 QUESTION 10 CHOOSE YOUR OWN QUESTION Produce a novel, salient question from your own curiosity about the U.S. labor force. Answer your question with an IMPUS CPS online analysis. If you cannot answer your question with the IPUMS CPS data, then choose another question. Illustrate with at least one graph or table. Motive your question, summarize your findings, and comment on any noteworthy trends using labor economic theory with a few paragraphs totaling 300 words.

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