Topic: Dissertation on Using Evidence-Based Strategies to Prevent Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections to the Hemato-oncology and Bone Marrow in a Saudi Arabian Hospital}

Topic: {Using Evidence-Based Strategies to Prevent Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infections to the Hemato-oncology and Bone Marrow in a Saudi Arabian Hospital}

A well done change project dissertation but has not following the guidelines in such points, has to be rewritten as another person is writing it ( the same ideas but in different way, the examiner has to find it as a subject given to 2 persons and they are writing on the same subject.)

1.0       Project dissertation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..4

1.1       Student Choice of Dissertation Content ………………………………………………………………………………..4

1.2       Ethics Approval Requirements ……………………………………………………………………………………………..4

1.3       Increased Student Choice in Dissertation Content ………………………………………………………………….5

1.4       What is an organisational development project?……………………………………………………………………6

1.5       The purpose of the project ………………………………………………………………………………………………….7

1.6       An evidence-based approach to organisational development ………………………………………………….7

1.7       Learning Outcomes …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….8

1.8       Choosing a Topic ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..9

1.9       Providing evidence to support reasons for selecting project ……………………………………………………9

1.10     Access to Previous Dissertation Projects ……………………………………………………………………………. 10

1.11     Choosing an organisational development model ………………………………………………………………… 10

2.0       Project Proposal …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

2.1       Project Sponsorship, Permission and Completion ……………………………………………………………….. 11

2.2       Ethical Approval ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 11

2.3       Deposition of a dissertation on the online RCSI repository and HSEland. ………………………………. 11

3.0       Dissertation Project ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

3.1       Word Count……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12

3.2       Confidentiality………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 12

3.3       General notes on the structure of the report ……………………………………………………………………… 13

3.4       Poster presentation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 13

3.5       Reflection ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14

3.6       Submission of dissertation ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14

4.0       Student support …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14

4.1       Feedback ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

5.0       Dissertation format, layout and presentation. ……………………………………………………………………….. 17

5.1       Overall structure …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

5.2       What should be included in each chapter? ………………………………………………………………………… 18

6.0       Generic Recommendations for the presentation of the dissertation ………………………………………… 19

6.1       Cover …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 19

6.2       Layout……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 19

6.3       Pagination ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19

6.4       Point of View: first or third person construct and gender neutral language …………………………… 19

6.5       A table of contents with page numbers……………………………………………………………………………… 20

6.6       Acknowledgements…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

6.7       Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 20

6.8       Structuring chapters ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 21

Recommended Reading …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 21

Appendices…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 22

Appendix 1. Equity Template ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 23

Appendix 2. Permission & Sponsorship Form ……………………………………………………………………………….. 24

Appendix 3. Project Confirmation Form ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 25

Appendix 4. Poster Template………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 26

Appendix 5. Review for ALS Members Template………………………………………………………………………………. 27

Appendix 6. Front Sheet …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 28

Appendix 7. Declaration Sheet (Ireland Only) ……………………………………………………………………………….. 29

Appendix 8. Setting SMART Objectives…………………………………………………………………………………………. 30

Appendix 9. SampleTable of Contents………………………………………………………………………………………….. 33

 

 

 

 

 

Abbreviations

 

 

ALS              Action Learning Set

HSE              Health Service Executive (Ireland) OD                Organisational Development PDSA           Plan, Do, Study, Act

VLE              Virtual Learning Environment (Moodle)

 

 

1.0    Project Dissertation

 

 

To fulfil the requirements of the MSc programme students are required to undertake an organisational development project. The project equates to three modules and represents 30 credits towards the MSc award. The project is carried out during the second year of the programme to enable the student to apply the knowledge, skills and personal development gained throughout the whole programme.  The project is expected to be manageable and one that can be completed within the required timeframe. Milestones to help guide and support the student through the project are detailed in the Timeline document (see VLE).   In situations where  students are involved    in    a    large    organisational    project,    a    smaller    aspect    of    this organisational project  can  be  considered  to  meet  the  programme  requirements. Work that was completed before the course started is not acceptable for project work. Ongoing development of projects or work already started is acceptable.

 

Please note that these guidelines should be read in conjunction with the student handbook.

 

 

 

1.1     Student Choice of Dissertation Content

 

The  mission  of  the  Institute  of  Leadership  is  to  focus  on  your  leadership, management and educational competencies as health professionals. Our MSc programmes are designed with this in mind and they consist of a series of blended learning modules combined with a dissertation focusing on change or organisation development. Evaluations by our graduates indicate that producing the dissertation is a challenging but rewarding learning experience. Equally, the senior management teams in organisations, who support you, as students in taking time out to study and fulfil the MSc requirements, have been very complimentary of the programme and have  recognised  the  increased  ability  of  our  graduates  to  initiate  and  manage change.

 

The complexity of healthcare organisations, the increasing demands of data protection legislation and the emerging requirement for even the most basic projects to receive ethics committee approval are making it increasingly challenging for some of our students to actively lead a project in an organisation. Some of our students have been challenged to secure authority to initiate and progress a project in a healthcare organisation because of their level in the organisation. Each year we have  a number of  requests,  from  students,  who  may be  new in  their  posts  or between posts, to find a project in an organisation. Moreover, sponsorship for the proposed project has sometimes been delayed as has ethics approval. There is further challenge in some countries where power and influence in organisations is complex and a student lacking influence can find it impossible to get the necessary support.

 

 

 

1.2     Ethics Approval Requirements

 

Academic and healthcare institutions are increasing the requirements for students undertaking  any  type of  research  to  undergo  ethical  scrutiny.  Ethical approval is    now    a    requirement    for    any    organisation    development    or    quality improvement   project,   which   involves   engaging   with   patients,   staff   or   other

 

stakeholders. Such interactions raise ethical issues such as confidentiality, justice, anonymity,  etc.    Even  projects  that  use  secondary  data  sources,  (and  here, data protection  legislation  in  some  countries  complicates  the  picture  further) require ethical approval. Limitations also now exist regarding simple audits which, while  not  necessarily  requiring  ethical  approval,  are  unlikely  to  be  publishable without it. W hile we acknowledge  the  importance of  safety and  protection of  our colleagues and patients in healthcare organisations we also acknowledge that, for some  students, ethical approval may not be straightforward, is likely to be time- consuming, and may have to be secured in more than one location.

 

It  is  important  that  the  dissertation  challenges  and  assists  you  in  meeting  the learning outcomes of your academic programme and in enhancing your leadership and managerial competencies. The challenges for students in year 2 of the masters can include:

 

  1. 1. Securing an organisation in which to conduct a project
  2. 2. Securing senior management organisation approval to lead a project
  3. 3. Securing ethical approval in a timely manner and occasionally over a range of organisations
  4. 4. Working in a junior role in the organisation thereby lacking the influence to implement a change project
  5. 5. Moving between organisations during the programme

 

 

 

1.3     Increased Student Choice in Dissertation Content

 

In response to these challenges, and in line with international best practice of increasing the diversity of assessment methods and student choice in assessment, the Institute of Leadership, from 2014/2015, offers you a degree of choice in relation to the content of your dissertation.

 

You may:

 

(i)       Complete  a  project  requiring  full  implementation  in  your  organisation during the lifetime of the programme

 

OR

 

(ii)      Design and delineate a detailed project and implementation plan for a project that might be subsequently implemented after the programme.

 

The dissertation is a major piece of work and is currently worth 30 credits. Because of this, both dissertation options have been assessed for equity (see Appendix 1). Detailed guidelines are provided to allow you to decide on the approach most suited to you.

 

 

1.4     What is an organisational development project?

 

The dissertation for the MSc programmes is an action-based organisational development project. Students are expected to construct, plan, implement and evaluate an organisational development within their organisation.   This is a “live” project tackling real organisational issues. Students are expected to take the lead in implementing the project and to take responsibility for ensuring it is successful.

 

There are a number of differing and complementary views on the nature and assumptions of organisational development. This programme draws on the definition provide by Cummings & Worley (2009);

 

Organizational development is a systematic application and transfer of behavioural science knowledge to planned development, improvement, and reinforcement of the strategies, structures and processes that lead to organizational effectiveness’ (p.1)

 

The   organisational   development   approach   adopted   for   this   programme   is underpinned by the traditions of action research, particularly the work of Coghlan & Brannick (2014). Senior & Swailes  (2010: 326) argue that action  research ‘is a collaborative effort between leaders and facilitators of any change and those who have  to  enact  it’.  Senior  &  Swailes  have  further  developed  this  concept  and presented an OD model of change (Figure 1.) that present a dynamic process that embraces action research. It is important to appreciate that this approach does not consider change as a ‘one-off’ event but an on-going process.

 

 

 

 

Figure1. Senior & Swailes (2010) OD Model of Change

 

 

 

However, due to the constraints of the programme students are expected to conduct their project within the time parameters. Using the Coghlan and Brannick approach

 

 

 

 

students would normally be expected to complete one full action research cycle

(diagnosing/constructing, planning, taking action, and evaluating action – Figure 2).

 

 

 

 

Figure 2. Coghlan & Brannick (2014) Action research cycle

 

 

 

1.5     The purpose of the project

 

The purpose of the project is twofold. Firstly, it acts as a capstone for the programme by providing an opportunity for the student to put into practice and demonstrate what they have learned. It is hoped that the student will further develop skills as a leader and manager by implementing a real evidence-based organisational development within their own work context. Secondly, it is hoped the project will have an organisational  impact  and  contribute  to  improvements  in  service  provision.  The project also  allows  the  student  to  develop skills in  planning for,  evaluating and measuring this organisational impact.

 

1.6     An evidence-based approach to organisational development

 

Evidence-based practice is the foundation for good leadership and management. It is expected that the dissertation will be informed by sound evidence drawn from published research, organisational and national data and other creditable sources. The student is expected to analyse their own organisation and/or service and identify appropriate areas for development that is supported by evidence. The student is also required to be familiar with relevant literature related to their project topic area. This will  be  demonstrated  through  conducting  a  systematic-like  literature  review  that draws on research papers, reports and other relevant sources. In addition, students will need to be informed by the general literature on  organisational change and development and to consider the most appropriate model of organisational development to help guide their project.

 

 

1.7     Learning Outcomes

 

On successful completion of this project students will be able to:

 

  1. 1. Evaluate the complexities of leading organisational development.

 

  1. 2. Critically analyse  their  organisational  environment  to  identify  an  area  for planning,   implementing   and   evaluating   organisational   development   in p

 

  1. 3. Critically analyse previous evidence in the subject area and use this to inform organisational development

 

  1. 4. Undertake or  plan  an  evidence-based  organisational  development  project which demonstrates an ability to lead and evaluate the complex processes inherent in organisational development.

 

  1. 5. Reflect critically on their practice to evaluate the impact of their OD project upon their organisation and themselves as health practitione

 

  1. 6. Demonstrate  the   ability   to   produce   a   poster   for   dissemination   and presentation of their OD project  at organisational meetings, seminars and conference

 

 

 

 

1.8     Choosing a Topic

 

Students are encouraged to consider the following criteria when selecting their organisational development project.

 

The project should focus on an issue which:

 

  • requires a change or development to the ‘way things are done’.
  • is a legitimate part of their role, for which they have responsibility.
  • is perceived as challenging, but not overwhelming.
  • they have agreed with their line manager or person with appropriate authority.
  • will have identifiable meaningful and tangible outcomes (i.e. how will you know that the outcomes have been achieved?)
  • will bring measurable and/or identifiable benefits to the organisation.
  • fits with the organisations strategy.

 

In deciding which topic to pursue it is helpful to consider the following questions. While there are no clear prescriptions to be found in the answers, they will provide a basis to assess the strengths and weaknesses of each proposed topic carries.

 

  • Am I interested in making a change to the current situation?
  • How much do I know about this situation?
  • Can I cope with the likely demands?
  • Do the potential benefits to the organisation match the time and effort I am likely to put in?
  • Are the resources  (time,  facilities,  money,  equipment,  staffing,  knowledge, skills, etc.) available to make this project achievable?
  • Will I need to learn new techniques and methods?
  • Does the project have a clear end/outcome?
  • What could go wrong, and how can I avoid such problems?
  • What is the likely balance between practical and desk work (i.e. doing vs. reading, collecting information and analysing) and how does this relate to the project objectives?

 

 

 

1.9     Providing evidence to support reasons for selecting project

 

It is important that students provide organisational evidence to support the reason they  have  selected  the  project  and  to  align  their  project  with  organisational priorities and strategies. This will help create a sense of urgency during the initiation stage of the OD process and increase the likelihood of success. Students are encouraged to  use appropriate change management and  organisational development tools (e.g. force field analysis, SWOT, Pareto charts, stakeholder analysis etc.) to help inform the diagnoses of the current situation within the organisation. The raw data from the tools can be included in the appendices of the project report. The benefit of using the particular tool should be stated in the text, supported by reference to the appropriate literature.

 

 

 

1.10   Access to Previous Dissertation Projects

 

Dissertation reports are available for students to view online at  http://epubs.rcsi.ie. Posters can be viewed online on the VLE and the website  www.rcsileadership.org or at  www.hseland.ie.

 

 

 

1.11   Choosing an organisational development model

 

Students are required to choose a model of organisational development to guide their project. The organisational development models that should be used are Senior and Swailes (2010) OD Model for Change, or the Health Service Executive (2008) Change Model  (Table  1).  The rationale for choosing the model must be discussed in chapter 3 and justified in the context of relevant literature (see Table 2: General notes on structure). Note that if required a PDSA cycle can be incorporated into the OD process/ model.

 

 

 

Table 1: Organisational Development models of change

 

 

Senior & Swailes1

 

HSE Change Model2

 

1. Diagnose current situation

2. Develop a vision for change

3. Gain commitment to the vision

4. Develop an action plan

5. Implement the change

6. Assess and reinforce change

 

1. Initiation

2. Planning

3. Implementation

4. Mainstreaming

1Senior, B. & Swailes, S. (2010) Organisational change. Edinburgh: Pearson Education.

2HSE (2008) Improving our services: A user’s guide to managing change in the Health Service Executive. Dublin: Health Service

Executive.

 

 

 

 

 

2.0    Project Proposal

 

 

Students are required to submit a project proposal for review prior to commencing the project (see assignment for submission date). An assignment descriptor and template is provided on the VLE that outlines the submission requirements.

 

Students will be provided with feedback on their proposal. The feedback will also indicate whether or not the student should proceed with their project.

 

2.1     Project Sponsorship, Permission and Completion

 

To ensure the quality and authenticity of the projects students are required to obtain permission to carry out their project within the participating organisation and confirmation that the project was carried out and completed. Students are required to identify an organisational project sponsor within their organisation who will support the project. The sponsor selected must also have the appropriate authority to provide permission for the project  to  be  carried  out.  Students  are  required  to  submit a completed ‘Permission & Sponsorship Form’ (appendix 3) prior to commencing their project.   On   completion   of   the   project,   the   sponsor   is   also   required   to confirm (appendix 4)  that  the project  was carried  out  and  completed  within  the organisation. Students  are  required  to  submit  a  completed  ‘Project  Confirmation Form’ (appendix 4) when submitting their dissertation. The following forms are available on the VLE;

 

  • Permission & Sponsorship Form
  • Project Confirmation Form

 

The timeframe for submission of this information is also outlined in the Timeline

document available on the VLE.

 

 

 

2.2     Ethical Approval

 

Students   are   required   to   ensure   compliance   with   all   ethical   and/or   other organisational requirements before commencing their project. All projects must be reviewed by the ethics committee attached to the organisation where the project will be carried out. In the event that there is no ethics committee attached to the organisation an application for ethics approval must be made to the RCSI Ethics Committee.  Where  approval  is  granted  from   another  ethics  committee,  the approval letter  must  be   sent   to   the   RCSI   Ethics   Committee   together  with supporting documentation  that  accompanied  the  application.  In  the  event  that  a research ethics  committee  decides  that  ethical  approval  is  not  required  a  letter confirming  this decision  must  be  sent  to  the  RCSI  Ethics  Committee,  as a record.  Details  of  this process will be given on the VLE. Further information and related documentation can be accessed by registering at  http://ethics.rcsi.ie/. A copy of the letter confirming that ethical approval was granted or not required must be included in the appendices of the dissertation report.

 

 

 

 

2.3     Deposition of a dissertation on the online RCSI repository and HSEland.

 

The copyright for the dissertation is owned by the individual student and has the status of an unpublished manuscript under the Copyright Act 2000 (Ireland). The RCSI Institute of Leadership embraces the ethos of sharing and disseminating academic work to the wider community. The main methods used by the Institute are via the RCSI epublications site (http://epubs.rcsi.ie), the RCSI Institute of Leadership website and HSEland.   To allow the RCSI Institute of Leadership to make your dissertation    (report    and    poster),    available    students    are    required    to provide permission. This is done in two ways;

 

 

1) Including the following declaration as part of your dissertation

 

I agree to deposit this dissertation in the RCSI epublications open access repository or   allow   the   RCSI   Library   to   do   so   on   my   behalf,   subject   to   Irish Copyright Legislation.’

 

I agree for my dissertation poster to be included in the book of posters made available on the RCSI website, subject to Irish Copyright Legislation.’

 

I agree for my dissertation poster to be included in the book of posters made available on the HSEland website, subject to Irish Copyright Legislation.’

 

 

 

2) Completing the online declaration when uploading your dissertation.

 

 

 

Open access epublication dissertations are freely available over the  internet for users to read, copy, download, and distribute subject to Irish Copyright Legislation.

e-publications@RCSI is an open access repository of research and scholarly output of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. The service is maintained and managed by the RCSI Library.

 

 

 

 

3.0    Dissertation Project

 

 

The  organisational  development  dissertation  comprises  of  two  components;  the main   report  and   poster.   Guidance   on   the   requirements   for   each   of   the components is outlined below and also available on the assignment descriptor (available on the VLE).

 

 

 

3.1     Word Count

 

The  word count  is as  follows  for the  project  report is  15,000  words  (+/-10%). The abstract that is included in the project report should be 200-250 words. No word limit is specified for the main body of the poster.  The  word  count  for  the report starts from the first word of chapter 1 to the final word of chapter 5.

 

 

 

3.2     Confidentiality

 

The confidentiality of information or data collected or included as part of the dissertation is sometimes an issue of concern for students and their organisation. Confidentiality can be maintained by avoiding the identification of the institution or of staff/personnel. Please see 2.3 for information on ‘Deposition of a dissertation on the online RCSI repository and HSEland’.

 

 

3.3     General notes on the structure of the report

 

The chapter headings for the main report are outlined in Table 2. The discussion in each of the chapter should make use of the current literature on the topic area.

 

Table 2: General notes on structure

 

No. Chapters
1. Introduction
2. Literature Review
3. Organisational Development Process
4. Evaluation
5. Discussion & Conclusion

 

 

 

3.4     Poster presentation

 

Students are required to submit a poster as part of their project dissertation. The poster should provide a summary of the completed project providing information on the following:

 

  • Introduction and background
  • Aim and objectives
  • Methodology and Methods
  • Evaluation
  • Organisational impact
  • Conclusion
  • References

 

A poster presentation of the OD project is scheduled for one of the seminars. This will provide an opportunity to receive feedback from colleagues and facilitator on the visual representation, which summarises the project.  Resources are available on the VLE to help guide the student in preparing their poster (note that you must comply with the RCSI template and colours – appendix 9). Also, a poster workshop will also be provided to assist students with poster design and development.

 

Guidance on poster submission;

 

  • Upload poster onto the VLE as a PowerPoint slide (ppt) file.
  • A colour copy of the poster should be included as part of the appendices of the softbound copy of the dissertation report (Ireland).
  • A separate A3 size colour hard copy of the poster is required to be submitted

(Ireland only).

 

 

3.5     Reflection

 

Students are required to reflect on the experience of carrying out their project during the OD process (in practice). The reflection ‘in practice’ should focus on the experience, feeling, thoughts and emotions during the OD process. This should be recorded on a regular basis throughout the year. The reflection (cycle) provides an opportunity to reflect on the experience and learning that has taken place while carrying out the organisational development. Students are required to select an appropriate reflective model to help structure their reflections (such as Gibbs’, Kolb, Rolfe). Resources to help guide students in the use of reflection are available on the VLE. Students are required to submit five reflections ‘in practice’ as a separate document to the dissertation report or via a link to their eportfolio. The reflection is not part of the word count for the project report and that references are not a requirement. The reflections are not graded. However, students are required to submit the structured reflections to enable them to successfully complete the Year 2 programme.

 

 

 

3.6     Submission of dissertation

 

Students are required to upload the three components of the dissertation onto the VLE before the assignment submission deadline. Also, students in Ireland are required to submit a softbound copy of  their dissertation and poster. Please note that late submission will not be accepted and the VLE will automatically close at the designated time.

 

 

 

4.0    Student support

 

 

Student support during the project will be provided through the use of facilitated action learning, peer-led action learning, seminars and online support.

 

Action Learning

 

The Institute of Leadership embraces the principles of action learning informed by the work  of  Reg  Revan’s  ABC  of  Action  Learning  (2011)  and  the  Office  for  Health Management   document   Action   Learning   (2003).   The   set   meetings   are   action orientated and provide an opportunity for students to question and explore new ways of thinking. To help assist students a guide for facilitators and participants is variable on the VLE   – RCSI Institute of Leadership   Action Learning: A Guide for Facilitators & Participants

 

 

 

Facilitated Action Learning

 

Each student will be allocated to action learning group for the duration of year 2. The group will be supported by a designated facilitator. The establishment of rapport and trust between facilitator and student is fundamental to building a positive working relationship. Students are required to attend all meetings and to participate actively in the  process  to  both  gain  and  provide  support  and  guidance.  A mark will be allocated for attendance. Full marks can be achieved by attending a minimum of 5

ALS and seminar sessions. The signed record of attendance will be used to inform the allocation of these marks.   The group meetings will also be an opportunity for

 

 

facilitators to supervise the progress of group members. When a situation arises where a student does not avail of the support offered, their  dissertation  may not  be  accepted  for  submission.  Please  note  that the facilitator will be, in some cases, the marker of the project. Samples of projects are reviewed as part of the internal and external moderation process.

 

 

 

Peer-Led Action Learning

 

In addition,  students  are  encouraged  to  participate actively  in  peer-led  action learning that are separate to the group facilitated action learning and seminar sessions. The  time  and  venue  for  the  meetings  should  be  negotiated between group  members.  Meetings  rooms  are  available  but will need to be booked in advance through the Administration Office. Alternatively, meeting could be arranged using computer-mediated-communication (VLE, Go-To-Meeting, Skype, WhatsApp, Google Groups etc.).

 

 

 

Action Learning Set Review for ALS Members and Facilitator

 

At the end of the meeting, it can be very helpful for ALS members and the Facilitator to review  and  record  the  key  points,  questions,  or  insights  that  arose  during  the  ALS meeting. This review provides the opportunity to focus and identify specific actions agreed. These reviews can be kept and revisited at later meetings either to demonstrate the extent of progress that has been made or to consider alternatives actions if an ALS member finds themselves in a position where the same issue recurs, and they are it difficult to make progress. The recording and use of the review record is the responsibility of each An Action Learning Set Member Review template is available in appendix 5.

 

 

Seminars

 

Seminars will be made available throughout the academic year to assist students. Seminars will be scheduled in conjunction with the action learning set meetings. The focus of the seminars will be a mixture of students led and faculty-led sessions. Each supervision group will be expected to deliver at least one session to the whole group.

 

Students should contact the Programme Director for queries related to the programme.

 

 

Online Resources

 

In addition to the extensive library resources provided by the RCSI, a number of online resources are available to support students. These resources include;

 

Grammarly ‘An online grammar and spell checking application that

improves communication by helping users find and correct English writing issues. Grammarly provides context and correction suggestions about grammar, spelling, vocabulary usage, and plagiarism’. Grammarly also includes an MS Word and Outlook plugin that enables you to use the application as you type. Grammarly.com

Turnitin ‘is the leading originality checking and plagiarism prevention

service used by millions of students and faculty, and thousands of institutions worldwide. Turnitin encourages best practices for using and citing other people’s written material.’ Turnitin.com

Lynda.com ‘lynda.com is a leading online learning company that helps

anyone learn business, software, technology and creative skills to achieve personal and professional goals’. Lynda.com.

Academic Phrasebank ‘The Academic Phrasebank is a general resource for academic writers. It aims to provide you with examples of some of the phraseological ‘nuts and bolts’ of writing organised according to the main sections of a research paper or dissertation’. This resources is provided on line by The University of Manchester

http://www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.uk/

 

A more detailed pdf version that conatins 40% more phrases is avaiable to IOL students which includes sections on

 

·          tips for academic writing

·            sentence and paragraph structure

·            characteristics of academic style

·            commonly confused words

·            British and US spelling

·            punctuation

·            article use

 

 

OnlineLibrary resources can be accessed at

 

 

 

Students are also encouraged to make use of other online resources that are accessible on the internet. These include reference managers (Mendeley, Zotero, Endnote etc.), HSEland and Google Scholar.

 

 

4.1     Feedback

 

Written  feedback   will   be   provided   to   students   on  draft  elements  of  their dissertation throughout the year. The specific elements are

 

  • Proposal
  • Chapter 1
  • Chapter 2 (structure, search strategy and one key element)
  • Final draft

 

Please refer to the VLE for expected timeline for sumision of drafts.

 

To ensure that students are ready to submit their dissertation for marking feedback will be given on a final draft submission of the report. All students are required to submit a final draft for review. Feedback on the draft will be provided by group supervisors or by other faculty. The draft should consist of  a complete  project report, which includes appendices and references. Students are expected to proofread drafts for spelling and grammatical errors (please note that the supervisor will not  provide  feedback  on  spelling,  grammatical  and  typographical errors)  prior  to submission for review. Students are required to ensure that they have adhered to the guidelines   on   structure,   formatting   and   referencing   and RCSI  Examinations  and Assessments Regulations regarding plagiarism and academic integrity.

 

 

5.0    Dissertation format, layout and presentation.

 

 

This section provides guidance on the expected standard for the formatting, layout and presentation of your dissertation.

 

5.1     Overall structure

 

The report should contain the following elements:

 

  • Front page (appendix 5)
  • Declaration sheet (appendix 7) – Ireland only
  • Table of Contents
  • Acknowledgements
  • Abstract
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • Main body of text (5 chapters, see below)
  • Reference List
  • Appendices

 

The text must be:

 

  • Left aligned or justified
  • Recommended font – Arial size 12pt
  • Double or one-and-a-half spacing

 

 

 

5.2     What should be included in each chapter?

 

1.0 Introduction
This  chapter  should  provide  an  introduction to  the  dissertation  and  provide  a  clear statement  of  the  organisational  development  (OD)  that  you  plan  to  introduce.  This chapter must, at a minimum, include the following;

 

·  Details about the organisation and the context of the change.

·  The rationale for carrying out the project.

·   A description of the project leading to the specific aim & SMART objectives set

(see Appendix 2 for more information).

·  The role of the student in the organisation and the project.

·  Signpost the reader to the remaining chapters

2.0 Literature Review
This  chapter  should  be  a  systematic  type  review  that  draws  extensively  on the literature  relevant  to  your  selected  topic  area.  A  short  description  of  your  search strategy should be included that details the parameters set for your review, such as search  terms,  databases  used,  date  parameters,  types  of  literature  and inclusion/exclusion criteria. The number of articles or literature included in the review should also be stated. The review is expected to provide a concentrated critique of the literature on the project topic area. Also, it should outline the implications for the project and provide evidence to support the rationale for the change. This chapter should not be a summary of the actual change or the change literature. The literature review should conclude with a brief overall summary of the findings.
3.0 Organisational Development Process
The main focus of this chapter is to detail the OD methodology and methods utilised in carrying out the project. This should be structured using the OD model that you have selected to help guide your project (see page 1.8). A brief critical review approach to OD should be provided along with a rationale for the model selected.  The chapter should outline the practices you engaged in with reference to the literature on OD and change. Consideration should be given to the financial impact and value for money of your project. Note that if required a PDSA cycle can be incorporated into the OD process/ model. Your reflections   can be incorporated into this chapter to help support the discussion on your experience.
4.0 Evaluation
This  chapter  provides  details  of  the  methods  of   evaluation  employed  and  the analysis  carried  out.  Quantitative  and/or  qualitative  data/metrics  should  be included in  this  chapter.  Reference  should  be  made  to  the  literature  associated with  your chosen methods. Please note that it is important to that the evaluation should be linked directly to the stated objectives in Chapter 1. If financial objectives have been set they should be reported in this chapter.  A brief discussion on the importance of healthcare evaluation should be provided at the start of the chapter.
5.0 Discussion & Conclusions
This  chapter  draws  together  the  findings  from  your  project,  your  experience  of introducing  change  and  a  discussion  of  how  your  project  relates  to  the  literature discussed  in  chapter  2.  This  should  take  the  form  of  a  critical  discussion  of  your experience   of   leading   the   OD   process   as   described   in   Chapter   3   and   your evaluation   findings   as   described   in   Chapter   4.   Links   to   your   literature   from Chapter    2    should    be    made    where    appropriate.    Your    reflections    can    be incorporated into this chapter to help support the discussion on your experience.

 

This chapter should conclude with a discussion of the impact that your project has had on       the      organisation,       contribution      to       practice   and/or      theory      and recommendations for future improvements.

 

 

6.0    Generic Recommendations for the presentation of the dissertation

 

The project must be written using chapters and headings. Presentation of the project for submission must adhere to the following:

 

6.1     Cover

 

Binding (Ireland Only)

 

Softbound – heat or ring bound.

 

Front page

 

The title page must bear the title of  the work in  at  least 24pt (8mm) type. The title should describe the content of the dissertation project accurately and concisely (not more than 15 words). The name and initials of the candidate, the qualification for which the work is submitted (e.g. a dissertation submitted in part fulfilment of the degree of MSc in  [Healthcare  Management,  Institute  of  Leadership,  Royal  College  of  Surgeons  in Ireland),  word  count  and  the  year  of  submission  must  also  be  shown. Please see template available on the VLE.

 

6.2     Layout

 

Double   or   one-and-a-half   spacing   is   recommended   in   typescripts,   except   for indented quotations and footnotes, where single spacing may be used.

 

 

 

6.3     Pagination

 

Pages shall be numbered consecutively throughout the dissertation, including appendices, but excluding photographs and/or diagrams that are not embodied in the text.

 

 

Position of Page Numbers: Page numbers shall be located centrally at the bottom of the page.

 

 

 

6.4     Point of View: first or third person construct and gender neutral language

 

It is common for students to ask whether they should write in the first (‘I did’) or third person (‘this was done’). While there are no definitive rules,  it is recommended that students consider adopting an approach that best suits what is being discussed. This can change throughout the dissertation.

 

For example

 

Chapter 1. A mixture of both first and third person construct but predominately first.
Chapter 2. The literature review is considering the views of others and should be

written in the third person.

Chapter 3. This chapter will describe your involvement in the OD process and is written

in the first person. However, it will be appropriate to use the third person in some instances.

Chapter 4. Quantitative results are written in the third person. Qualitative results can be

written in the first person.

Chapter 5. The discussion is a mixture of both the first and third person construct.

 

 

When writing your dissertation, it is important to use terminology that treats different gender equally. To avoid the use of ‘his’ or ‘her’ the plural can be used e.g. ‘Hospital managers have increasingly complex roles; their duties include…’ rather than ‘The Hospital Manager has…; her duties include…’

 

 

6.5     A table of contents with page numbers

 

The table of contents should list chapter headings and subheadings and should be exactly the same as the headings in the text (a template is provided for reference in Appendix  8).    References  and  appendices  should  be  listed  following  all  other sections.

 

The list of tables following the main contents page should contain details of all tables with page numbers. The list of figures following the main contents page or a list of  tables  (whichever  is  relevant)  should  contain  details  of  all figures  with  page numbers.

 

Please Note: Headings in bold font should act as main headings, subheadings are in italics only. Avoid using coloured font in the project report.

 

 

 

6.6     Acknowledgements

 

This section should include an acknowledgement to all who have provided support during the project process. It can also include those who participated in the change, and  the  organisation in  which  the  project  has  taken  place  (without  naming  the organisation).

 

 

 

6.7     Abstract

 

  • The abstract should be a brief but comprehensive summary of the dissertation project.
  • Approximate length 200-250 words (one-typed paragraph with single-line spacing)
  • It is usually the last section to be written but the first to be read by reviewers.
  • The abstract must be written in a language that could be understood by an informed layperson.
  • It must communicate the essential parts of the dissertation and follow the same order as the dissertation.
  • Suggested headings include;

 

–    Aims

–    Rationale

–    Change Process

–    Evaluation

–    Results & Conclusion

 

  • Abbreviations and references should not be used in the abstract.

 

 

6.8     Structuring chapters

 

Chapters  should  be  divided  using  sections  and  subsections  as  required.  It  is advisable to use headings and subheadings and number these subsections. For example  Chapter  1  sections  may  be  numbered  as  follows,  1.1,  1.2,  etc.  and Chapter  2   would  be   numbered   2.1,   2.2   (see   Appendix   8).   Headings  and numbering  provide  the  reader  with  a  ‘signpost’ throughout  the  report.  Figures should be labelled as figure 1, 2, 3, as they appear in the text. The tables should also be labelled Table 1, 2, 3 as they are presented.

 

It is important to inform the reader briefly what is going to be addressed at the beginning of each chapter and provide a brief summary at the end of the chapter. It is important that summaries are brief and do not include any new information. Each chapter should stand alone but should link to each other. This will remind the reader of the key points throughout the dissertation project.

 

 

 

 

Recommended Reading

 

Bryman, A. & Bell, E. (2011) Business research methods (3rd  edn). Oxford: Oxford

University Press.

Cummings, T.G. & Worley, C.G. (2009) Organizational development & change (9th

edn). Mason: South-Western Cengage Learning.

 

Coghlan, D. & Brannick, T. (2014) Doing action research in your own organisation

(4th edn). London: Sage.

 

HSE (2008) Improving our services: A user’s guide to managing change in the Health

Service Executive. Dublin: Health Service Executive.

 

Joyce P. (2012) Action Learning- a process which supports organisational change initiatives. Action learning: research and practice. 9(1): 29-36 http://epubs.rcsi.ie/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013&context=ilhmart

 

Revans, R. (2011) The ABC of action learning. Farnham: Gower Publishing.

 

Senior,  B.  &  Swailes,  S.  (2010)  Organisational  change (4th edn).  Edinburgh: Pearson Education.

 

TOHM (2003) Action learning. Dublin: The Office of Health Management

 

 

 

 

Appendices

 

 

 

 

Appendix 1. Equity Template

 

Student Information/Equity Template
Module: Dissertation
Assessment Choice Assessment:

OD Project Implementation

Assessment:

OD Project plan and presentation

Requires ethics approval Yes No, so long as based on desk research
Weighting toward Module assessment 100% 100%
Details of Assessment  

Report           80% (240/300) Poster           10% (30/300) Attendance  10% (30/300)

 

Report               70% (210/300) Presentation     20% (60/300) Attendance      10% (30/300)

Why might this suit you? Organisational capacity and ethics approval available Organisational capacity and ethics approval not applicable
Learning Outcomes to be assessed All All
Equity in marking procedures As above for weighting Internal & external moderation As above for weighting Internal & external moderation
Equity in Teaching & Learning Activities to support Facilitated action learning Peer-led action learning Workshops/Seminars Facilitated action learning Peer-led action learning Workshops/Seminars
Equity in Feedback mechanisms Written feedback aligned to learning outcomes Written and panel feedback aligned to learning outcomes.
Student Workload

Expectations

Same Same
Examples of assessment method available to student beforehand (if unfamiliar) e-publications

Posters on website

e-publications and sample of the detailed plan from last year

 

 

 

Appendix 2. Permission & Sponsorship Form

 

Appendix 3. Project Confirmation Form

 

 

 

 

Appendix 4. Poster Template

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix 5. Review for ALS Members Template

 

 

 

 

Appendix 6. Front Sheet

 

 

 

 

Appendix 7. Declaration Sheet (Ireland Only)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Appendix 8. Setting SMART Objectives

This resource is designed to help you understand and to develop SMART objectives. There is often confusion and variation in the use of the terms aim, goal and

objectives. To ensure consistency the RCSI Institute of Leadership draw on the following definitions

 

Aims are the changes you hope to achieve as a result of your work

 

Objectives are specific statements of the outcomes to be achieved (HSE, 2008).

 

 

 

Structured objectives originated with the work of Drucker (1954) in his book ‘The Practice of Management’ where he introduced his idea of MBO (Management by Objectives).  This  was later  developed  by Doran  (1981)  into  SMART  objectives. Objectives are crucial for planning an OD project by clarifying the nature of the project, how the aim will be achieved, how it will be measured and when is the objective expected to be achieved.

 

SMART is an acronym for

 

  • Specific
  • Measurable
  • Achievable/Ag reed, Realistic
  • Time-Bound

 

 

 

An OD project generally includes between three to seven objectives; each containing the elements of the SMART acronym.

 

Developing a SMART objective. Step 1.

When selecting the objectives consider the following to help inform the focus of your objectives.

 

What are the triggers and drivers for the OD/change

What is the expected impact once the project is complete (you can also use the

Project Impact Statement sheet on the VLE to help guide you)

 

Triggers & Drivers  
Expected Impact  

 

 

 

Step 2.

 

You can use the following template to help construct your objectives.

 

By          /_        /_        ,                                                                                           

 

[WHEN—Time bound*] [WHO/WHAT—Specific]

 

from                                              to                                                                . [MEASURE (number, rate, percentage of change and baseline)—Measurable]

 

 

 

Example

 

By 6th May 2014 [time bound], there will be an increase in compliance with HIQA hand hygiene standards XX [specific and relevant to the project], from 60% to 100% [measurable and achievable].

 

 

 

 

You will need to review your objectives to ensure they are realistic and achievable. It would be normal to included between 4 and 7 SMART objectives as part of your project.

 

 

 

 

It  is  worth  noting that  this  is  not  the  only method  of  writing SMART  objectives.  For example when  introducing  a  new  system  it  is  unlikely  that  employees  will  have the  required knowledge. In this case, your baseline knowledge could be low or even 0%. Listed below are a number of different approaches to writing objectives.

 

 

 

 

 

Examples

 

  • By 30th March 2014 [time bound], 95% [measurable] of all grade 3/4 hospital clerical staff will have attended the new PIMS training session [specific].
  • By 24th May 2014, all grade 3/4 hospital clerical staff who have attended the new

PIMS system training session will achieve a minimum post-training test score of

75%.

  • All nursing staff performing IV cannulation of patients will have

completed the Hospital IV cannulation training session as measured on the 2nd

May 2014.

  • All nursing staff performing IV cannulation of patients will have achieved a

minimum post-training test score of 90% as measured on the 2nd May 2014.

  • By 3rd April, the average waiting time in the rheumatology out-patients department will reduce from 120 minutes to 30 minutes.
  • By 3rd May, 95%, all patients attending the accident and emergency department will be triaged by a registered nurse within 20 minutes of registration.
  • By 23rd January 2014, the selected order communications system will be 100% compliant with organisational specifications.
  • By 22nd April, the wards included with the surgical directorate will be 95%

compliant with the pre-operative protocol.

 

 

 

Use the VLE forum discussion to provide examples of your project objectives. Ask other group  members   to   identify   the   SMART   elements   within   your   objectives   and   to provide  peer feedback.

 

 

 

 

Reference

 

Drucker, P.F. (1954) The Practice of Management. New York: Harper & Brothers

 

Doran, G. T. (1981). There’s a S.M.A.R.T. way to write management’s goals and objectives. Management Review, 70 (11):35-36.

 

HSE (2008) Improving our services: A Users’ Guide to Managing Change in the Health

Service Executive. Dublin: Health Service Executive

 

 

Appendix 9. SampleTable of Contents

 

 

 

Acknowledgements

Abstract

List of Tables

List of Figures

 

1   Introduction

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Organisational Context

1.3 Rationale

1.4 Aim & Objectives

1.4.1  Aim

1.4.2  Objectives

1.5 Role of the Student in the Organisation and Project

1.6 Summary and Conclusion

 

2   Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Search Strategy

2.3 Review of Themes

2.3.1  Theme 1

2.3.2  Theme 2

2.3.3  Theme 3

2.3.4  Theme 4 etc

2.4 Implications for the Project

2.5 Summary and Conclusion

 

3   Organisational Development Process

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Critical Review of Approaches to Organisational Development

3.3 Rationale for OD Model Selected

3.4 OD Model* (choose one core model)

3.4.1  Initiation

3.4.2  Planning                                          *HSE Model

3.4.3  Implementation

3.4.4  Mainstreaming

or

3.4.5  Diagnose Current Situation

 

3.4.6  Develop a Vision for Change

3.4.7  Gain Commitment to the Vision

3.4.8  Develop an Action Plan

3.4.9  Implement the Change

3.4.10 Assess and reinforce the Change

 

 

3.5 Summary and Conclusion

 

4   Evaluation

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Significance of Healthcare Evaluation

4.3 Evaluation

*Senior & Swailes Model

 

4.3.1  Aims

4.3.2  Methods & Measures

4.3.3  Results

4.3.4  Dissemination Plan

4.4 Summary and Conclusion

 

 

 

5   Discussion & Conclusions

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Project Impact

5.2.1  Stakeholders

5.2.2  Practice

5.2.3  Theory

5.3 Strengths of the project

5.4 Limitations of the project

5.5 Recommendations

5.6 Summary and Conclusion

 

6   References

 

7   Appendices

B

Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100
Use the following coupon code :
BEST16
error: Content is protected !!